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Standards:Glossary of Terms

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Accreditation Committee - the committee established by the Board of IDEA-NL, composed of IDEA and Open Society Institute (OSI) staff, members of IDEA and outside affiliates. The Accreditation Committee helps the member NGO with resources and provides all official papers, including downloadable accreditation certificates, related to the accreditation process.

Accreditation Consultant Report - the final report of the Accreditation Committee which consists of a review of the on-line application, site visit and needs assessment.

Accreditation Consultants - experienced debate educators, authorized by the Accreditation Committee to advise and assist applicant NGO's seeking accreditation. They communicate in a network with the IDEA Accreditation Committee to adjust criteria and standards.

Accreditation Process - a process by which NGO's and trainers are certified.

Accreditation Status - an acknowledgement that a member NGO embodies and employs the principles of IDEA and has fulfilled its duties as a component of the speech and debate organization.

Affiliate Accreditation Process - the NGO's ability to locally accredit clubs, resource centers, trainers, teachers, coaches and judges.

Affirmative (proposition) Team - has the responsibility to define and interpret the resolution.

American Parliamentary Debate - this two team format is modeled on the British House of Parliament and is used in the United States.

Associations - programs, NGO's.

Automatically/Initial Accredited Individuals - the accreditation of participants upon meeting, at least, minimum criteria established by IDEA. It serves to acknowledge the participant's contribution to the development of the association and related activities, internationally, nationally and locally.

Blind Review Process - a panel of readers who evaluate a writing while kept unaware of its authorship.

British Parliamentary Debate - this 4-team style of parliamentary debating is used in the United Kingdom, Ireland, Europe and Africa. It is also the style used in the World Universities Debating Championship ('Worlds') and European Universities Debating Championship ('Euros') at which only 15 minutes notice is given of the motion.

Clubs - speech and debate clubs can exist at schools, universities, youth organizations, and community center. When established at a school, a club will likely take the form of an extracurricular activity. At a community or youth center, it may function as one of the educational programs offered by that institution.

Coaches - educators and role models who may introduce students to speech and debate, and guide their students in practice and discussion.

Community Service - voluntary (unpaid) work or services that benefit a school, club, or wider community. Non-competitive speech and debate events that occur outside tournaments are also considered community service. Mandated work is not considered community service in DebateTracker.

Controversia - An International Journal of Debate and Democratic Renewal - a biannually-published, refereed, interdisciplinary journal that explores the nexus of communication and politics and which seeks to stimulate reflection on the role of dialogue and debate in fostering participatory governance in both emerging and established democracies.

Cross-examination - a series of questions and answers involving one speaker from each side of a debate.

Cross-Examination (Policy) Debate - focuses on the core elements of controversial issues and develops in the students important skills, such as critical thinking, listening, argument construction, research, note-taking.

Crossfire Sequences - in Public Forum Debate when a debater who had just spoken confronts an opposing debater in a freewheeling discussion in which both participants can ask or answer questions as they see fit.

Crystallization - summarizing the crucial areas of conflict throughout the round and demonstrating how their side has fulfilled its obligations as per the resolution.

DebateTracker - IDEA's on-line database.

Dramatic Interpretation - an individual event in which students must select, analyze, and share a cutting from a play that may have one or more characters through the art of oral reading.

Duo Dramatic Interpretation - an individual event in which two students must find, analyze and share a cutting from a play through the art of oral reading.

Equal Opportunity/Employment Policy - a document that specifies that the organization will not discriminate in its hiring and/or promotion policies.

Extemporaneous Speaking - an individual event in which students must prepare and deliver an original speech on a current events topic with a limited amount of preparation time.

Flowing - the taking of notes during a debate.

Formal Accreditation Process - the formal process by which an NGO receives accreditation that takes place over a one-year period, and begins when an entity submits its application.

Four Team Parliamentary Debate - also known as British Parliamentary Debate.

Grievance Committee - the forum through which a complaint can be lodged by any individual associated with a member NGO.

Harassment Policy - an official IDEA document that maintains that all eligible speech and debate participants, irrespective of race, creed, age, sex, national origin, sexual preference, or nondisqualifying handicap, should have access to activities and provides a procedure to be followed if a violation occurs.

Heckling - short, witty, and relevant comments that challenge some aspect of the opponent's case and entertain the audience. Allowed in some forms of debate heckling can be positive (knocking on the table or saying 'hear, hear') to signify support or negative (saying 'shame') to signal an opponent's misrepresentation of an argument.

High-Low Elimination Pairings - higher-seeded debaters or teams (i.e. teams with relatively better records) debate lower-seeded debaters or teams (i.e. teams with comparatively more losses or fewer awarded speaker points).

IDEA High School Parliamentary Debate Tournament of Champions - sponsored by IDEA-USA and Willamette University and promoted in Europe by IDEA-NL the purpose of the IDEA High School Parliamentary Debate Tournament of Champions is to provide a high-quality parliamentary debate tournament involving the best debaters from the US and around the world. The IDEA High School Parliamentary Debate Tournament of Champions is a 3-day event held on the campus of Willamette University and is usually held during the summer.

IDEA/NPDA International Parliamentary Debate Championship Tournament Series - sponsored by IDEA-USA and promoted in Europe by IDEA-NL the purpose of the IDEA/NPDA International Parliamentary Debate Championship Tournament Series is to provide a high-quality parliamentary debate tournament bringing together college students from around the globe. The IDEA/NPDA International Parliamentary Debate Championship Tournament Series consists of two 3-day tournaments separated by one travel day generally held between late December and the middle of January.

IDebate - a quarterly magazine written for general readership, distributed in hard-copy and electronically on the IDEA web site. Articles have academic value and provide new information for the reader such as program updates, debate formats, etc.

Impromptu Speaking - an individual event in which students learn to prepare and deliver an original speech on the spur of the moment.

Inactivity - the lack of activity of an NGO, club, teacher, trainer, coach, judge, student which can cause the loss of accreditation. Inactivity is based on data entered into DebateTracker, the IDEA on line database.

Independent Board of Directors - an organized group of individuals, unaffiliated directly with an NGO, who exercise oversight on the NGO's operations.

Individual Events - a forum for students to hone skills in public speaking and help develop confidence by thoughtfully engaging issues of social importance or interpreting works of cultural value.

Informative Speaking - an individual event in which students prepare and deliver an original speech designed to fulfill the general aim of providing new information to the audience. The speech should describe, clarify, illustrate or define an object, idea, concept, or process.

Intellectual Honesty - citing arguments and statistics truthfully and never fabricating sources or data.

International Trainer Assessors - appointed by the Board of IDEA-NL, in consultation with the most experienced trainers, International Trainer Assessors are selected based on their understanding of and adherence to the principles of IDEA speech and debate programs, outstanding service as trainers, coaches and mentors, the geographical and linguistic needs of the project, exemplary leadership qualities and an ability to reflect on their own practice and on that of others.

International Trainer Portfolio - required for International Trainer accreditation, the portfolio includes a teaching philosophy, a professional development plan, documentation of any mentoring activities, a demonstration of solving ability and training experience.

International Trainer Standards - the level of proficiency that should be demonstrated in seven elements, organized into three domains (knowledge and presentation skills, organizational skills, professional growth and development).

Internet Debates - a way to bridge geographic distances and to allow for discussions between people who might not otherwise have a chance to meet. Internet Debates allow debaters to engage in short debates using instant messaging software.

Judges - individuals who decide a winner and rank participants and to ensure that the experience is educational for all students.

Karl Popper Debate - in teams of three, debaters must research a relevant and often deeply divisive propositions, emphasizing the development of critical thinking skills, and tolerance for differing viewpoints.

Legal entity - a legal construct through which the law allows a group of natural persons to act as if it were an individuals for certain purposes.

Lincoln-Douglas Debate - one affirmative and one negative speaker focus on an issue of philosophical or political concern which is analyzed from a moral perspective.

Long Term Plan - a tool in assisting a member organization to prepare for future challenges.

Local Accreditation Committee - established by the NGO to oversee and implement the affiliate or local accreditation process.

Member - an entity that, by paying a fee, is a part of IDEA-NL.

Middle School Public Debates - fosters debate and speech activities for students in the middle grades (approximately 11-14 years) and seeks to empower them to participate in democratic processes.

Mission Statements - statements that should be signed by club and resource center leaders, teachers, trainers, coaches, judges and students that establish minimum standards and which must publicly displayed.

Negative (opposition) team or individual - argues against the affirmative position.

NGO Accreditation Committee (NAC) - nominated by the governing board or general assembly of the member NGO, NACs should consist of a minimum of two members who are qualified and who have knowledge and experience with speech and debate. NGO Accreditation Committees work with their Accreditation Consultant to develop the plan and agenda for local accreditation. The local accreditation plan is approved by the member NGO and submitted to the IDEA Accreditation Committee.

Non-voting member - an entity that pays a fee for membership but is not entitled to vote on issues of IDEA-NL.

On-Site Visit - part of the NGO formal accreditation process that consists of the observation of a tournament, a training, practices, and interviews.

Persuasive Speaking/Original Oratory - an individual event in which students prepare and deliver an original speech designed to inspire, reinforce or change the beliefs, attitudes, values or actions of the audience.

Plan for Affiliate Accreditation - the plan the NGO submits to IDEA for the accreditation of affiliated local clubs, resource centers, teachers, trainers, coaches, and judges. It should outline how local accreditation committees are to be established, the criteria used for determining accreditation, and a grievance procedure for appeals. The plan should stipulate that the rights, responsibilities and rules for clubs, coaches, judges, and students be publicly displayed.

Privacy - the degree to which information is to be shared with whom and for what purpose.

Poetry Interpretation - an individual event in which students must find, analyze and share a cutting that has meter or rhyme through the art of oral reading.

Points of Information - in Parliamentary Debate, if accepted, Points of Information allows the debater making the request fifteen seconds to make a statement or ask a question.

Points of Personal Privilege - in Parliamentary Debate a point of Personal Privilege is used when a debater believes that an opponent has personally insulted one of the debaters, made an offensive comment, or grievously misconstrued another's words or arguments.

Portfolio - a requirement for any educator wishing to be locally accredited the portfolio includes a resume, two model lesson projects of speech and/or debate trainings, diplomas of honors, training materials, publications).

Programmed Oral Interpretation - an individual event in which students must find, analyze and share a program of thematically linked selections through the art of oral reading.

Prose Interpretation - an individual event in which students must select, analyze, and share a cutting from literature other through the art of than verse or plays through the art of oral reading.

Provisional Accreditation Period - an initial two-year period in which NGOs prepare for formal accreditation and during which time they can accredit local entities.

Public Forum Debate - a debate format in students gain a unique opportunity to develop on-their-feet critical thinking skills by situating them in contexts not unlike US political (radio and TV) talk shows.

Regional Coordinators - disseminate information about local accreditation, organize the process of accreditation and perform the routines of collecting and managing information necessary for local accreditation.

Resolution (proposition, motion) - the topic of debate.

Resource Center - a place where a small library of instructional materials (i.e. textbooks, video tapes, etc.) as well as research materials that students and teachers can use to prepare for speech and debate activities is kept.

Revocation of Accreditation - IDEA accredited NGO's can lose accreditation due to inactivity or as a result of egregious and clearly documents violation of the intent of the principles and standards of the organization.

Sanctioned Events - events that have met the standards set and have been approved by IDEA.

Seals of Excellence - received by students, judges, coaches, clubs, trainers and associations upon amassing points and entering them in DebateTracker.

Self-dealing - the use of influence within an IDEA member organization to conduct a transaction to the detriment of other organizations or to the unreasonable benefit of the association person.

Sexual Harassment is a form of discrimination characterized by, but not limited to, verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature that has the effect of denying or limiting an individual's right to participate in an activity, or that creates a hostile, intimidating, or offensive environment that places the victim in an untenable situation and/or diminishes the victim's opportunity to participate fairly.

Shadow Judges - judges who do not meet the judging requirements that are paired with more experienced judge who will mentor them on judging standards.

Student Bill of Rights - an official IDEA document designed to provide students with a mechanism for making their voices heard and that provides a mechanism for appeal if they feel they are not being heard.

Supporting Member - a member who serves as an advocate or champion for IDEA.

Teachers - classroom instructors who wish to introduce speech and debate into their classroom.

The IDEA Weekly - the IDEA Newsletter, distributed by e-mail 52 times a year, i.e. reminder of events, opportunities, successes, etc.

Trainers - individuals who provide training sessions.

Trainings - instructional sessions which emphasize education, both in terms of increasing student's knowledge and in enhancing the skills of those trained.

Transparency - implies all activities of IDEA and IDEA members are presented fully and frankly to all interested parties.

Topic-Oriented Sourcebooks - collections of articles and statistics to aid students in researching complicated issues.

Two Team Parliamentary Debate - also known as American Parliamentary Debate.

Voting Member - an entity that, by paying a fee, is entitled to vote on issues of IDEA-NL.

Youth Forums - a two-week event consisting of series for debate theory and content sessions as well as two tournaments, an IDEA Karl Popper Debate Championship Tournament and an IDEA Karl Popper Debate Mixed Teams Tournament.

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