Background and context
To gain membership in the WTO, there is a certain process that must be followed.
First, the country has to send a memorandum which lists all of the country's trade and economic policies that deal with WTO agreements to a working party that is assigned to deal with the country's application. Any member countries can join the working party.
Second, after the country has changed its policies to WTO standards, it will initiate bilateral talks with various member countries to discuss rates, tariffs, and policies. In doing so, the country will show the benefits it can bring as a member of the WTO and must follow WTO's "non discrimination rules".
Thirdly, after the working party has examined the countries economic program and negotiations are at an end, the working party will prepare "a report, a draft membership treaty (“protocol of accession”) and lists (“schedules”) of the member-to-be’s commitments."
Finally, the package is sent to the WTO General Council or Ministerial Conference and if it passes by least 2/3 of the vote, the country has the option of signing the protocol and acceding to the organization.
Russia submitted it's appliaction in 1993 and currently, it is in the stage where the Working Party Report and the Factual Summary are being worked on. Bilateral negotiations are also ongoing.
As an observer of the WTO, Russia is required to accede in 5 years.